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nanotube, swcnt, mwcnt, graphene, lithium, sodium,
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carbon, nano, CNT, swcnt, li, edge plane, arrays,
bulk, chirality, batteries, sensors, capacitors, carbon
nanotube, swcnt, mwcnt, graphene, lithium, sodium,
electrochemical, sensor, catalyst, cvd
carbon, nano, CNT, swcnt, li, edge plane, arrays,
bulk, chirality, batteries, sensors, capacitors, carbon
nanotube, swcnt, mwcnt, graphene, lithium, sodium,
electrochemical, sensor, catalyst, cvd
carbon, nano, CNT, swcnt, li, edge plane, arrays,
bulk, chirality, batteries, sensors, capacitors, carbon
nanotube, swcnt, mwcnt, graphene, lithium, sodium,
electrochemical, sensor, catalyst, cvd
Sustainable Carbon NanoTechnology and Engineering LLC
Engineered NanoCarbon Materials for Power Storage and Transmission                       
CarboThermal Carbide Conversion (US Patent US8252264) – CTCC

The CTCC process was developed in 2006/2007 with the purpose of creating Carbon NanoTubes in a more cost effective manner than was possible with CVD
chemistries. What was found, the CTCC process created a unique 3 Dimensional network of ultra small, Single Wall CarbonNanotube like structures in tightly
networked, irreducible, highly electrochemically active form.

What is the nano structure?

TEM images have shown the structure to be predominately ropes and bundles of US-SWCNTs (Langmuir, 2007, 23 (18), pp 9501–9504). CVD CNT
growth processes utilize nano phase metal catalysts. The size, shape, and composition of these catalyst particles determine the size, shape, chirality and format of
the resultant CNTs. That is, the catalyst particles help determine the diameter of the CNTs, inside and outside diameters. Because the CTCC process utilizes the
solid state chemical reaction of carbides with carbon oxides at high temperature, the size and shape of the material produced is dependent on the crystal structure of
the carbide used. The majority of material produced by SCNTE uses beta SiC and cubic B4C. This results in US-SWCNTs of less than 1nm in diameter, of
metallically conductive chirality. This presents some difficulty to the researcher, however. To gain independent insight into the microstructure, some are tempted to
rely on low resolution imaging machines – often just SEM. With the much larger, more easily imaged MWCNTs this is an acceptable technique. However, with the
sub nanometer diameters, and low degree of linearity, effectively imaging CTCC produced material becomes difficult. A few of our partners (US Air Force Research
Lab and Oxford University) have produced very high resolution images using the Titan 300/80 system. In fact, many of the images seen here we obtained with that
TEM/STEM system.

What is the advantage of the CTCC process over conventional CVD chemistries?

Cost. Consistency. Purity. Flexibility. Safety. Environmental Safety.

Raw materials for the CTCC are inert. There is no vapor phase byproduct. The reactants and products are safe to handle and store. Carbide (typically silicon and
boron) and air are the reactants. SiO2 is the major product, aside from nanocarbon. Our raw material is as low as $7/pound, with a 30% yield.

The CTCC process is far more consistent and reproducible than CVD chemistries. This is because the chemistry is simpler, as is the equipment. No pre-CNT
production of another nano phase is required, deleting a significant step in the process, saving cost and increasing the consistency of the material. Because of the
process simplification, the CTCC process far more scalable and economic than CVD chemistries. More and more of the apparent potential toxicity of nanocarbon is
being linked to the residual metal catalysts
(Toxicology Letters Volume 168, Issue 1, 10 January 2007, Pages 58–74). The CTCC process directly
addresses this concern. Typical CTCC material is in excess of 99% crystalline nanocarbon. No metal catalysts are used anywhere in our process.

CTCC equipment and the process itself are far more safe than hydrocarbon or carbon monoxide dependent systems. No flammable or hazardous gases are used at
elevated temperature, making the process safer for workers as well as the environment.



What is the advantage of CTCC 3 Dimensional material over 1 and 2 Dimensional materials?

From a technical standpoint, the largest advantage to CTCC produced material resides in the unique, ultra-high edge plane 3-Dimensional structure. It is widely
accepted that with graphitic structures (carbon nanotubes, nano onions, graphene, etc) that the basal plane is largely unreactive, while the edge plane is very reactive.
So for superior performance, we strive to produce the highest edge plane nanocarbon material possible. Three primary features contribute to edge plane content –
•        Diameter. Smaller diameters result in larger π separation, increasing chemical and electrochemical activity. SCNTE produces some of the smallest diameter
material available
•        Defects. Defects act as terminations. These include bends or kinks in the structure, structural defects like missing carbons or additions like nitrogen that disrupt
the π bonds.
•        Terminations. Similar to defects, it is widely recognized in the literature that CNTs ends are the primary contributor to the electrochemical properties of CNTs
(Chem. Commun., 2005, 829-841)

We identify our material as 3-Dimensional because it is distinctly different in structure than both CVD grown CNTs as well as graphene, but related to both materials.
Close inspection of our material indicates that the individual networks (“Clusters”) which combine to form the NanoSilC product, are irreducible by mechanical
means. Since individual clusters have a roughly spherical shape, they are considered 3 dimensional. This structure presents multiple advantages over lower
dimensioned nanocarbons, including increased edge plane character, increased electrochemically active specific surface area, and increased chemical reactivity.
Our Process Technology
Contact:
info@scnte.com
Phone: 937.602.4544
7278 North US68
Wilmington, OH 45177